What is JointPower® Equine?
JointPower® Equine is a high-quality powder that promotes joint health in horses. It is easy to use - just add it to your horse's feed.
It comprises a number of active ingredients: glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate, MSM, vitamin C and turmeric. Each of these ingredients plays a role in joint health and each occurs naturally, with all but turmeric (from plants) occur within the animal body. All ingredients included in JointPower® Equine are of the highest quality.
Glucosamine is an amino sugar (a sugar molecule with an amino group attached). It is supplied in Joint Power® Equine as the highly stable hydrochloride salt of glucosamine.
Chondroitin sulfate is a sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG). GAGs are also called mucopolysaccharides. Chondroitin sulfate is composed of a chain of a particular disaccharide composed of the two sugars, N-acetylgalactosamine and glucuronic acid. These sugars have sulfate groups attached.
MSM is a form of organic, naturally-occurring, bioavailable sulfur.
Vitamin C and curcumin (the active compound in turmeric) are both powerful antioxidants which reduce the production of free radicals that can damage cells and tissues. Vitamin C is supplied in Joint Power® as sodium ascorbate. Turmeric is supplied in Joint Power® in a highly concentrated form.
What is osteoarthritis?
Osteoarthritis is an inflammatory disease characterised primarily by progressive and permanent breakdown of cartilage in joints, but additionally by inflammation of the synovial membrane, changes in the subchondral bone (the bone underlying the cartilage in a joint), and reduction in synovial fluid viscosity. Animals with osteoarthritis suffer pain which is manifest as lameness, reduced mobility and, in companion animals, as a reluctance to rise.
Like all tissues in the body, cartilage undergoes constant repair. Cartilage has a huge capacity to synthesise its major components (proteoglycans and collagen). In a normal healthy joint, the amount of cartilage matrix that breaks down during normal daily activity and the amount of new cartilage that is produced to replace the degraded cartilage are the same, but in osteoarthritis cartilage breakdown exceeds cartilage synthesis.
The beneficial effect of JointPower® Equine and how it works in osteoarthritis
Each active ingredient in JointPower® Equine plays a role in maintaining joint health.
In studies in animals (dogs and horses) and humans with osteoarthritis, oral administration of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate, given either individually or together, has generally been found to have beneficial effects which include relieving the pain and inflammation of osteoarthritis and reducing the narrowing of the joint space that occurs in osteoarthritis, with a resultant improvement in mobility.
Both glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate are fundamental building blocks of cartilage. Glucosamine provides important raw materials for the synthesis of cartilage proteoglycans, while chondroitin sulfate is usually found attached to proteins as part of a proteoglycans. A vital characteristic of cartilage is its resistance to compression, and chondroitin sulfate is the component that is largely responsible for this characteristic.
However, the actions of both glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate appear to extend beyond simply the provision of raw materials. Thus, there are also other mechanisms, mostly at the molecular level (such as effects on genes and chemicals within the body) by which these compounds stimulate cartilage synthesis and more importantly, inhibit its breakdown, as well as inhibit the inflammatory process in the joint.
Some of these mechanisms include:
• inhibiting the synthesis and activity of enzymes that degrade cartilage (most notably, the matrix metalloproteinases and aggrecanases), and other enzymes involved in inflammation (such as phospholipase As (PLA2)),
• inhibiting chemicals called proinflammatory cytokines (such as interkeukin 1β (IL-1β) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)),
• inhibiting chemicals that mediate inflammation (such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide),
• inhibiting the activity of other key molecules in the inflammatory process such as nuclear factor kappa B (NFкB) and mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK).
Chondroitin sulfate has also been found to possess antioxidant activity and thereby reduces the concentration of free radicals in joint tissues. It has also been reported to improve synovial fluid viscosity and to reduce the changes that occur in subchondral bone in osteoarthritis.
The overall effect is to increase synthesis and reduce degradation of proteoglycans in cartilage and to inhibit the inflammatory process associated with osteoarthritis.
Sulfur, supplied by MSM is an important component of the building blocks for the production and repair of cartilage, and additionally, skin, hair, ligaments and tendons.
Vitamin C plays a vital role in the production of collagen, a major component of cartilage and other connective tissues. It also plays other important roles in the body such as maintaining normal immune function, thus protecting animals from infections.
Manganese plays an important role as a cofactor (‘helper’ molecule) for a large number of enzymes with many functions. Manganese is the preferred cofactor of enzymes called glycosyltransferases which are required for the synthesis of cartilage proteoglycans.
Turmeric, obtained from the rhizome (underground stem) of the plant, Curcuma longa, contains compounds called curcuminoids, the most important being curcumin. Curcumin has many beneficial effects, the main ones relating to osteoarthritis being:
• its anti-inflammatory activity - it inhibits cytokines that promote inflammation. It is therefore helpful in treating inflammatory diseases, particularly osteoarthritis.
• its potent antioxidant activity - among other factors, the disease process in osteoarthritis involves the accumulation of damaging free radicals within cells because the mechanisms for eliminating them become overloaded. The antioxidant activity of curcumin protects the cells and tissues of the joint (as well as other tissues of the body) from the damaging effects of these free radicals.
JointPower® Equine also contains optimal levels of medium chain triglycerides and piperine to enhance the bioavailability of curcumin. Bioavailability refers to the levels of a compound in the tissues of the body (where the compound exerts its beneficial effects) relative to the given dose (amount ingested for an orally-administered compound). So if the bioavailability of a compound is increased, the levels of the compound in tissues are increased. Generally, the higher the level of the compound in a tissue, the greater the compound's beneficial effect.
When is treatment with JointPower® Equine most effective?
JointPower® Equine is best as a:
(i) prophylactic management strategy to protect joint cartilage in animals at risk of developing joint problems including highly active animals and ageing animals – prevention is better than cure!
(ii) therapeutic for animals with existing mild, low-grade osteoarthritis
JointPower® Equine is designed for regular, longer-term, cost-effective, low dose administration. This applies to all animal species, as well as humans.